Projects

Investigation of Stroke Rehabilitation Technologies with the User Community

It is estimated that there are 15 million new strokes each year worldwide. In the UK stroke is the leading cause of disability among adults (1). For stroke survivors access to timely and skilled rehabilitation can improve recovery. However, with an NHS system under financial pressure and increasing demand being placed on rehabilitation services many Scottish stroke survivors fail to achieve optimal recovery (2). Rehabilitation technologies ranging from mobile apps to advanced robotics, can support efficient and effective delivery of rehabilitation. The integration of these technologies into mainstream practice, however, has been slow and variable (3). Reasons for this include lack of familiarity, availability, cost, setup time and lack of evidence (3). Resolving this disconnect between technology development and implementation into practice will require innovation from developers, users and policy makers. Current models of practice need to be challenged if technologies are to be fully exploited for patient benefit.

Our aim is reduce the healthy years lost to stroke through greater integration of technologies that promote patient centred functional recovery. To do this we propose a programme of activities designed to generate new thinking in this area by clarifying user priorities, developing a framework to evaluate and guide technology development in a way that places the user at the centre and to form a network of stakeholders capable of influencing practice nationally and internationally.

PI’s Lynne Baillie (Heriot-Watt University) and Andrew Kerr (Strathclyde University)

Funder

scottish universities insight institute

 

Dates Jan 2016 – Dec 2016

(Envisage) Promoting Physical Independence by Involving Users in Rehabilitation Through Dynamic Visualisation of Biomechanical Data

The Envisage project is about “Promoting independence by involving users in rehabilitation through dynamic visualisation of biomechanical data through visualization”. Our premise is that a biomechanical understanding of movement problems can be the key to physical rehabilitation following stroke, falls or joint replacement in elderly people. But use of biomechanical data in a clinical setting has been limited in the past because it is so difficult to communicate. The Envisage team has bridged this gap by developing software that allows movement to be visualized. We are now testing the hypothesis that “the visualisation of relevant biomechanical data to users (participants, carers, therapists and clinicians) will enhance understanding of and motivation to rehabilitation and hence produce better outcomes from rehabilitation”.

Led by Professor of Rehabilitation, Philip Rowe, at the University of Strathclyde, With Professor Macdonald at Glasgow School of Art and Professor Baillie at Glasgow Caledonian University, envisage brings together a mix of disciplines including software engineering, interaction design, sensor design, clinical rehabilitation and qualitative research. Engineers, scientists, designers, healthcare professionals and members of the public are collaborating to develop bespoke software that allows data captured by a specialist motion analysis system and portable motion sensors to be converted into clear and simple visualisations. The technology will enable healthcare professionals to communicate movement information that was previously only available in graphical, tabular or numerical form, thereby helping patients to improve their own mobility and prevent injury. The envisage team is performing five Phase II randomised controlled trials to evaluate a dynamic visualisation intervention that monitors real time movement rehabilitation in stroke, falls and joint replacement patients.

The long-term goal of envisage research is to empower patients to manage their own conditions by making rehabilitation therapies more effective. The visualization methodology is being tested with patients in home, community and hospital settings. The researchers hope using the animations will help to reduce injury and ill health in older people by improving their understanding, motivation and adherence to exercise plans.

For more information about envisage project visit: http://www.envisagerehab.co.uk

The project is funded by the Lifelong Health and Wellbeing programme - a cross research council initiative in partnership with the UK Health Departments.

The project runs from: Jan 2010 - Nov 2013

People working on the project are: Prof Lynne Baillie, Stephen Uzor, Mobolaji Ayoade and Lee Morton

 

The wireless motion sensor components

 Figure 1. The wireless motion sensor components.

 

A home setup in a compact living room.

 Figure 2. A home setup in a compact living room.

 

Straight Leg Raise

 Figure 3. Straight Leg Raise.

 

River Gems Game for Fallers

 Figure 4. River Gems Game for Fallers.

 

Participant Playing River Gems Exergame in their own home

 Figure 5. Participant Playing River Gems Exergame in their own home.

 

The use of the Knee replacement Interactive Visualisation System (IVS) in the experimental group accelerated the recovery of knee extension compared to the control group (exercise handbook and DVD) as shown in the graph. Also the IVS prevented decline of knee extension as shown by the positive change compared to the standard care

Figure 6. The use of the Knee replacement Interactive Visualisation System (IVS) in the experimental group accelerated the recovery of knee extension compared to the control group (exercise handbook and DVD) as shown in the graph. Also the IVS prevented decline of knee extension as shown by the positive change compared to the standard care.

Active Behaviour Demands Active Security - Mobile Device Security

Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets are rapidly becoming our digital identity. They are used for payments, and authentication as well as storing valuable information such as our address books and sometimes our passwords. Their relatively low cost, ease of use and “always on” connectivity provides a suitable platform for many day-to-day tasks involving money and sensitive data, which in turn makes mobile devices an attractive target for attackers, as indicated by recent attacks against the two well-known mobile platforms, Apple iOS and Google Android. The proposed research aims to mitigate some of the existing threats against mobile devices by building behaviour profiles of several components on mobile devices in a scalable fashion.

The people working on the project are: Dr Gunes Kayacik, Dr Mike Just, Prof Lynne Baillie, Dr David Aspinall (Edinburgh University) & Nicholas Micallef

The project runs from Sept 2012- Oct 2014

The project is funded by the: People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement no PIIF-GA-2011-301536.

 

Our current data set is located here

Falls Exergames

One of the most successful interventions for reducing the rate (and risk) of falls is the use of specially tailored exercises designed to improve strength and balance in older people. In the UK, the most commonly used exercise programmes used in community settings are based on the Otago Exercise Programme and the Falls Management Exercise Programme. The tailored exercises included in these programmes have been designed to target individual muscle groups to recover muscle strength and balance in older adults. Essentially the issue in practice is ensuring that the exercises are done regularly and with good movement quality. Certainly in the home setting, the use of home exercise booklets does not feasibly work, as motivation is very low. If exercise to improve strength and balance is to be effective there must, certainly in home dwelling older people, be a dose of at least 50 hours before which there is a definite effect on falls, rather than just an improvement in functional outcomes such as strength and balance which are known risk factors for falls. Therefore ways of making the exercises more fun, whilst also ensuring good movement quality are vital to ensure effectiveness.

Computer games and in particular serious games have received a high level of interest from researchers and health professionals alike. There are studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of specially tailored exergames, for rehabilitation in stroke. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of the use of such tailored exergames to aid the rehabilitation of fallers. To address this problem we designed and developed, in conjunction with elderly users at risk of falling, four exergames based on falls rehabilitation exercises (marching, side stepping, sit to stand and knee bends).

These games were then piloted for use in the home with a small number of fallers e.g. 8, over 12 weeks and it was found that the games encouraged greater adherence to the falls exercise programme compared to standard care. We had two groups use standard care (booklet and DVD) and a games group, the only group to maintain the prescribed number of exercise per week was the games group. Some games users performed well over the “prescribed” number of exercises as they enjoyed the games so much and in particular wanted to beat their scores. Their scores cannot increase unless they perform the movements with better movement quality and so this aids not only adherence but also correct movement technique. So, in home dwelling fallers, we have shown that the use of the exergames has increased adherence as well as significant gains in functional performance (Timed up and go, gait speed etc.).

These exergames require two sensors to be strapped to the person’s leg (to provide real time movement quality for the particular exercises) and all participants put these sensors on themselves and operated the computer system themselves with only minor problems (some were completely naïve to computers. The current project will trial a full set of 9 games in a large scale trial in collaboration with the falls service and community/ day care establishments.

Project Leader: Lynne Baillie
Project Researchers: Dr Stephen Uzor, Prof Dawn Skelton
Project Collaborators: Glasgow NHS, Greater Glasgow Falls Service and North Glasgow Homes Housing Association
Project Funder: Digital Health Institute

 

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Falls Games – Phase 2

There is a fundamental gap regarding the suitability of existing technology to fully support fallers to adhere to their exercise prescription. We have built a system which aims to fill that gap and fully support fallers whatever their category and whatever their living circumstances to undertake their rehabilitation exercises supported and encouraged by user centred technology.

 falls games user workshops nghDuring this project we wish to expand and test our custom built exergame technology in order that it:

1. Exergames work for the widest possible range of users.

2. Assess how it works in different types of ‘operational environments’(Golden Living, WV Bureau, Cabell Huntington Hospitals, St Marys Medical Centre, Golden Living and the Institute for Geri Olympics).

3. Investigate ways in which it can be designed to facilitate community play.

4. Investigate how progress can be designed to motivate adherence.

Funder: Digital Health and Care Institute
Partners: Geri Olympics USA, Golden Living, West Virginia Bureau of Senior Services, Marshall University, School of Physiotherapy
PI: Lynne Baillie
Co-I: Stephen Uzor
Project Running from: May 2016- Apr 2017

 

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EMMI: Enhancing The User Experience by Employing Innovative Methods for Multimodal Input and Output

The project shall investigate novel ways of interacting with our mobile devices from sensing technologies to effective media.

The main aim of the project is to explore completely new and untried ways of interacting with our mobile devices in order to first, discover new untried methods of interaction and second, to see if once designed and implemented these new methods make using the device more enjoyable and engaging.

Novel LED-Based Indoor Tracking of People with Dementia

The population of Scotland is rapidly aging and, within the group of over 65s, there are over 83,000 people with dementia, according to Alzheimer Scotland. It is estimated that currently 44 million people have dementia worldwide, with the total set to increase to 76 million by 2030, according to Alzheimer’s Society in the UK. They also estimate that dementia costs the UK economy £23bn a year which is more than cancer, stroke and heart disease combined.

One of the prominent problems for people with dementia is that they can get lost or become disorientated. For this reason, GPS trackers are used to locate patients. However, accurate location and indoor tracking is not feasible with GPS-based systems since satellite signals cannot work indoors nor do they offer sub-meter accuracy.  The main challenge, therefore, is to achieve monitoring from a remote location of the status of people with dementia in terms of motion behavioural status in real-time. Knowing the accurate position of the person with dementia is therefore not only important for safety, but also for classification of ‘episodes’ of dementia for better management of the condition. Current techniques for indoor tracking use RF (radio frequency) sensors and these are not accurate enough, as they usually provide accuracy in the order of several meters. Hybrid systems which have additional sensors such as accelerometers and heading sensors offer somewhat improved accuracy at the expense of additional complexity since all these multiple sensors are then required to work in a coordinated fashion.

We propose a solution that is: lightweight, easy to install, relatively cheap to deploy and run. Our solution utilises LED (Light Emitting Diode) lighting, which is currently being installed in many homes due to its rapid drop in price, excellent colour rendering, LED longevity and LED energy efficiency. The solution works by utilising the fact that LEDs blink rapidly (this is imperceptible to a human eye) and that this blinking can be modulated to transmit data in the range of tens of megabits per second.  We therefore propose using the LEDs to convey position information to a sensor located on the person.  Due to the propagation of light properties, it is possible to achieve better precision in localization than with RF e.g. centimetres rather than metres.

Project Leader: Sinan Sinanovic

Project Researchers: Lynne Baillie, Wasiu Popoola, Roberto Ramirez Iniguez, Funmilayo Ogunkoya

Project Collaborators: North Glasgow Homes Housing Association

Project Funder: Digital Health Institute

 

Co-Guide : A User Centred Guide to Our Collective Sporting Heritage in the East End of Glasgow: Past, Present and Future

A unique opportunity has arisen due to the advent of the commonwealth games in 2014 to re-examine Glasgow’s heritage with regards to the place of sport.

One of the aims of the games organisers is to produce a lasting legacy of engagement in sports for future generations after the games has finished and one of the most prominent reminders of that legacy will be the venues that are refurbished, extended and created.

Researchers are working in collaboration with local schools and communities to examine and build a mixed reality mobile guide (utilising cutting edge technology in order that the community can keep on adding information through various devices after implementation) for Glasgow.

There will be a launch of the guide at a showcase at the National Stadium at the conclusion of the project.

http://www.hlf.org.uk/Pages/Home.aspx

Falls Smart Insole Project

Prof Lynne Baillie and Dr Philip Smit are developing an innovative insole device which uses sensors to establish if older people are at risk of falls.

Nearly half of people over 65 have a fall, and around 400,000 people over the age of 75 will have to go to hospital as a result of a fall every year, with huge costs to healthcare services estimated at 2 billion a year in the UK. Many elderly people who have suffered a fall are scared of further injury and stop taking exercise that might help them remain healthy and active.

sinsole 2 insoleproject

Gait analysis - the study of human motion - is currently the primary method of assessing the risk of falls by an elderly person. Balance and gait disturbances act as a good indicator of the risk of falls. However, gait analysis can usually only be conducted in research environments, which include 3D motion capture, ultrasound techniques, force and pressure analysis, and metabolic and physical activity monitoring.

The researchers are developing a prototype insole which can be worn on the foot and which can measure the force and movement of a person walking, capturing data within a normal living environment. The data from the sensors will be saved to memory embedded within the insole.

Poor balance and gait are treatable through exercise programmes, so researchers believe the insoles will help people who have already had a fall to readjust their walking patterns. The insoles may also be used by physiotherapists, GPs and other healthcare providers to measure risk of falls and proactively prevent falls in elderly people.

This research has also featured on the Times: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/health/article4385032.ece

 

Project Leader: Lynne Baillie
Project Researchers: Dr Philip Smit & Prof Dawn Skelton
Project Funder: Digital Health Institutedhci main col logo rgb

Destination: A Location Aware Multimodal Mobile Game

Location based games offer opportunities for us to learn more about peoples interactions and feelings towards the environment they are in as well as to understand more about the mental models and locations associated with known environments e.g. a university campus with its associations of learning. Our project investigates ways to manipulate the activities in a game to take advantage of certain locations in the hope of producing certain emotional reactions and to trial new methodologies for location based games.

Enhancing the Visitor Experience (MI Guide)

Momedia and Glasgow Caledonian University undertook a joint project to develop a ground breaking RFID interactive system to provide rich multimedia content to exhibition and museum visitors. As the hand-held player is brought close to an exhibit, the RFID tag triggers associated multimedia content. The content which is updated using a standard web server can provide audio, video, still images and text in multiple languages. Your browser may not support display of this image. Your browser may not support display of this image.

This project is a collaboration between Glasgow Caledonian University and Momedia. The project was funded by the Scottish Governments SCORE funding. Collaborators: Peter Barrie & Andreas Komninos please follow the link to their website.

http://www.momedia.co.uk/pages/interactive.php

EVERLAP

EVERLAP: Early VERsus Later Augmented Physiotherapy compared with usual upper limb physiotherapy: an exploratory RCT of arm function after stroke.

Up to 80% of acute stroke patients have impairments of the upper limb (UL: arm and hand), which often persists, affecting daily activities, participation, mood and carer burden.  Evidence indicates that improving function after stroke requires task-specific, repetitive training - although more research is needed on UL physiotherapy (PT) specifically.  One of the key questions in providing UL physiotherapy after stroke is when best to start (i.e. within the first few weeks, when patients recover most; or after the first few months, when patients tend to be more settled and most hospital care has finished).  Another key question is how much extra support and  UL physiotherapy to provide.

Study intervention - early: Augmented UL PT: strategies primarily aimed at improving functional activity of the affected upper limb, provided within 3 weeks after stroke, comprising 27 extra hours over 6 weeks; 6 days per week, 45 minutes per day, divided depending on individual tolerance (e.g. 15 minutes 3 times per day).  To enhance self-management, research physiotherapists will provide either a workbook, Mobile phone app or DVD. This intervention will be provided in addition to usual UL physiotherapy.

Although currently not routinely used by therapists, reminders for patients to activate their upper limb may be an important adjunct to upper limb physiotherapy. For this reason, an arm activity reminder app has been designed to remind stroke patients to carry out their exercises. 

photogallery afib friendly exercises cardiac rehabilitation full

 

Study duration: 36 months.

Chief Investigator:  Prof Frederike van Wijck

Co-Investigator: Prof Lynne Baillie

Project Researchers: Dr Nicholas Micallef, Dr Stephen Uzor

Funder: The Chartered Society of Physiotherapychartered-society-of-physiotherapy1

Changing Peoples Activity Patterns (CHAPS)

Despite the importance of physical activity to health, many people do not meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity. In order to gain a greater understanding of people's activity levels and patterns in everyday life we undertook a project with the Paths to Health organisation. We gave people an activity monitoring device which can provide information on the proportion of time spent active.

By augmenting this information with location data over the same time period it was possible to derive information such as: number of trips outdoors, trip duration, distance travelled, the categorisation of activity (such as walking for exercise or in-home movement), and comparative information such as the proportion of travel on foot versus other modes of transport.

Funder: Paths to Health Funding: approx £20k Collaborators and Funders Funder: Paths to Health was established in 2001. Its aim is to contribute to health improvement in Scotland through the promotion of walking for health and their work now forms a key delivery mechanism for Scotland’s Physical Activity Strategy - Let’s Make Scotland More Active. For further information, please follow the link to their website. Collaborators: Peter Barrie & Andreas Komninos please follow the link to their website.

http://www.pathsforall.org.uk/pathstohealth/

No PILLS

Researchers at Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU) have begun a £7 million study to raise awareness of the presence of pharmaceutical residues in waste water and to explore new methods of reducing them.

noPILLS – a new European initiative focusing on the residue medicines and other pharmaceutical products leave in water when they pass through the human body, or are washed off. The concentrations in water are very low and are not thought to be harmful to humans though there are some concerns over the effects these residues may have on water habitats. Around 3000 pharmaceutical active substances have permits in Europe. Tests have shown that up to 70% of medicines used in a hospital may be excreted or washed off. The project aims to inform the public about the issue and widen the current debate. It will also gather data on pharmaceutical residues and explore various strategies to reduce their levels in the water cycle.

The EU is considering new quality standards for surface water, such as rivers and streams, that may - for the first time – restrict maximum levels for pharmaceutical substances. These are likely to come into force by 2021.

The noPILLS project sees a GCU team working with four partners across Europe, including water companies and universities. The project has an overall budget of almost £7 million (Euros 9 million), with the GCU team’s work accounting for approximately £2 million of the total.

GCU’s interdisciplinary team will work on detecting pharmaceuticals and their biological effects in a field study area in central Scotland. Social scientists at GCU will also investigate if – and under which circumstances - people may be most willing to consider a change in their pharmaceutical consumption and disposal habits.

Professor Lynne Baillie of the ITT Group will lead the technology focused part of the team which will build innovative mobile applications that will aim to communicate to people in the community complex pharmaceutical data and its impact on the quality of the water in their environment.

GCU’s Dr Ole Pahl, an environmental engineer from the School of Engineering and Built Environment, leads the noPILLS team in Scotland.

The project will run from September 2012 - September 2015

 

Calman Trust

We will be working in partnership with the Calman Trust that works with young people from 14-25 to develop a learning tool that youngsters can interact with to help them make the informed decisions required to sustain independent living, managing their own home and hopefully avoid the difficulties attached to homelessness.

The project will run from Dec 2012- Dec 2013

People working on the Project are: Prof Lynne Baillie, Stephen Uzor, Sean McCurley and Fiona Fairlie

Active Behaviour Demands Active Security - Mobile Device Security

Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets are rapidly becoming our digital identity. They are used for payments, and authentication as well as storing valuable information such as our address books and sometimes our passwords. Their relatively low cost, ease of use and “always on” connectivity provides a suitable platform for many day-to-day tasks involving money and sensitive data, which in turn makes mobile devices an attractive target for attackers, as indicated by recent attacks against the two well-known mobile platforms, Apple iOS and Google Android. The proposed research aims to mitigate some of the existing threats against mobile devices by building behaviour profiles of several components on mobile devices in a scalable fashion.

The people working on the project are: Dr Gunes Kayacik, Dr Mike Just, Prof Lynne Baillie, Dr David Aspinall (Edinburgh University) & Nicholas Micallef

The project runs from Sept 2012- Oct 2014

The project is funded by the: People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement no PIIF-GA-2011-301536.

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